GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION CRITICAL REVIEW



Gender Differences In Depression Critical Review

Gender Differences in Depression Medscape. 28.04.2017 · Salk, R. et al. Psychological Bulletin Published online: 27 April 2017 In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b)…, Kelly, Kelly, Brown, & Kelly (1999) also studied gender differences in depression among African-American and White college students. They found significant differences in depression scores between White males and females but no such gender difference among African-Americans..

Gender Differences in Depression and Male Depression A

Gender differences in depression appear at age 12. mental health status. Similarly, when considering the differences between women and men, a gender approach has been used. While this does not exclude biological or sex differences, it considers the critical roles that social and cultural factors and unequal power relations between men and women play in promoting or impeding mental health., 27.04.2017В В· An analysis just published online has broken new ground by finding gender differences in both symptoms and diagnoses of depression appearing at age 12..

ulnerability-stress approach, we consider the evidence for biological vulnerabilities (genes, pubertal hormones, and pubertal timing), affective vulnerabilities (temperament), and cognitive vulnerabilities (negative cognitive style, objectified body consciousness, and rumination). The impact of stress is central to the vulnerability-stress model, and we review evidence on gender differences in Women are at least twice as likely as men to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders, including unipolar depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias (Regier et al., 1993, Kessler et al., 1994).These sex differences are seen in multiple diverse countries and cultures, suggesting a biological basis.

This article is a critical review about the emerging problems in the field of alcohol research. In particular, the gender peculiarities of alcohol effects are highlighted. Up until now, there have not been many gender studies, but results are consistent with the hypothesis that the severity of alcohol-related damage is greater in females than that in males. Continuing research is needed to determine how gender influences the risk, clinical presentation, and response to treatment of depression. Exploration of sex differences in animals and humans should aid in efforts to treat depression as an organic disorder rather than a psychological maladaptation.

Gender differences in depression appear to be at their greatest during reproductive years (Bebbington, 1996). Recently, my colleagues and I set out to explore some of the possible explanations for gender differences in depression (Nazroo et al., 1997, 1998). To quantitatively review and critically evaluate literature examining gender differences in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method A meta-analysis of relevant research based on 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria was performed.

METHOD: A critical review of the literature, dealing separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. RESULTS: Although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in depressive disorders are genuine. Depression is the psychiatric syndrome that receives the most attention in individuals with cancer. We review 49 studies of prevalence of depression in individuals with cancer and describe the data available...

This is not to say that men do not experience traumatic events that trigger high levels of stress and depression as well, but the sociocultural pressures on women tend to be more impactful on their psyches. Gender and Responses to Stress. Our responses to stress are also inextricably linked to gender. The possibility that this finding is an artefact of differences in the ways in which men and women demonstrate depression is examined. A discussion of the implications of establishing a broader systemic perspective of depression for understanding the gender difference in depression is presented.

M. Piccinelli and G. Wilkinson, “Gender differences in depression. Critical review,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, pp. 486–492, 2000. 24.03.2011 · Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health.

However, regardless of gender differences in reporting of mental health issues, the APMS 2014 shows significant proportions of women are experiencing poorer mental health and these elevated rates among young women indicate that if we do not intervene earlier these young women could continue to grow poorer mental health as they age. 24.03.2011В В· Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health.

Kelly, Kelly, Brown, & Kelly (1999) also studied gender differences in depression among African-American and White college students. They found significant differences in depression scores between White males and females but no such gender difference among African-Americans. Piccinelli, M., & Wilkinson, G. (2000). Gender differences in depression. Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 486-492. Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. OPEN ACCESS. Gender differences in mental health service utilization among respondents reporting depression …

Why Women Are More Susceptible to Depression

gender differences in depression critical review

Gender differences in depression appear at age 12. 24.03.2011В В· Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health., This article is a critical review about the emerging problems in the field of alcohol research. In particular, the gender peculiarities of alcohol effects are highlighted. Up until now, there have not been many gender studies, but results are consistent with the hypothesis that the severity of alcohol-related damage is greater in females than that in males..

Gender differences in depression the role of personality. 30.03.2018 · Therefore, based on the previous literature from the disciplines of medicine, psychology and sociology, the author aimed at looking and reviewing the matter critically. Specifically, the present critical review aims at conceptualising the psychological, social and cultural factors in the context of gender difference in depression., Review Article Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (5) : 385 ABSTRACT Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors’ reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specifi c. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender.

Exploring Gender Difference in Depression Psychiatric Times

gender differences in depression critical review

New survey highlights mental health gender differences. 15.09.2019В В· Gender-related socialization. Developmental psychology uses learning principles in theories of socialization that account for gender differences in vulnerability to depression. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_disorders_and_gender 30.03.2018В В· Therefore, based on the previous literature from the disciplines of medicine, psychology and sociology, the author aimed at looking and reviewing the matter critically. Specifically, the present critical review aims at conceptualising the psychological, social and cultural factors in the context of gender difference in depression..

gender differences in depression critical review


15.09.2019 · Gender-related socialization. Developmental psychology uses learning principles in theories of socialization that account for gender differences in vulnerability to depression. Review Article Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (5) : 385 ABSTRACT Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors’ reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specifi c. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender

Piccinelli, M., & Wilkinson, G. (2000). Gender differences in depression. Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 486-492. Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. OPEN ACCESS. Gender differences in mental health service utilization among respondents reporting depression … Continuing research is needed to determine how gender influences the risk, clinical presentation, and response to treatment of depression. Exploration of sex differences in animals and humans should aid in efforts to treat depression as an organic disorder rather than a psychological maladaptation.

mental health status. Similarly, when considering the differences between women and men, a gender approach has been used. While this does not exclude biological or sex differences, it considers the critical roles that social and cultural factors and unequal power relations between men and women play in promoting or impeding mental health. Peer Commentary. It's Not Easy Being Male Either Josiah P. Allen Rochester Institute of Technology In "Why Women Are More Susceptible to Depression: An Explanation for Gender Differences," by Christina M. MulГ©, points were made that gloss over the issue of depression in men.

In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b) use a developmental perspective to elucidate patterns of gender differences across the life span; and (c mental health status. Similarly, when considering the differences between women and men, a gender approach has been used. While this does not exclude biological or sex differences, it considers the critical roles that social and cultural factors and unequal power relations between men and women play in promoting or impeding mental health.

Reviewed putative risk factors leading to gender differences in depressive disorders. A critical review of literature was performed that dealt separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. It was found that although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in depressive disorders are To quantitatively review and critically evaluate literature examining gender differences in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method A meta-analysis of relevant research based on 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria was performed.

ulnerability-stress approach, we consider the evidence for biological vulnerabilities (genes, pubertal hormones, and pubertal timing), affective vulnerabilities (temperament), and cognitive vulnerabilities (negative cognitive style, objectified body consciousness, and rumination). The impact of stress is central to the vulnerability-stress model, and we review evidence on gender differences in Review Article Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (5) : 385 ABSTRACT Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors’ reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specifi c. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender

gender differences in depression critical review

A study published in JAMA Psychiatry by researchers Martin, Neighbors, and Griffith found gender differences in depression symptoms but also found similarities. Fronimos, Y and Brown, D (2010) Gender Differences in Depression and Male Depression: A Social Psychological Review Social Psychology Review, 12 (1). pp. 3-16.

Gender Differences in Emotional Response Inconsistency

gender differences in depression critical review

Review Article Singapore Med J Occidental College. 28.04.2017 · Salk, R. et al. Psychological Bulletin Published online: 27 April 2017 In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b)…, In 1990, Nolen-Hoeksema published her book Sex Differences in Depression, which reviewed studies of depression and gender conducted outside the United States. Nolen-Hoeksema reported on gender differences in depression in individuals from high-income countries (developed countries) and low-income countries (developing countries)..

Gender Differences in Depression Medscape

Gender Differences in Depression and it Dr Shock MD PhD. With women being almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression (Brody, Pratt, and Hughes 2018), research on the correlates of gendered differences in mental health outcomes is essential., ulnerability-stress approach, we consider the evidence for biological vulnerabilities (genes, pubertal hormones, and pubertal timing), affective vulnerabilities (temperament), and cognitive vulnerabilities (negative cognitive style, objectified body consciousness, and rumination). The impact of stress is central to the vulnerability-stress model, and we review evidence on gender differences in.

02.01.2018 · A critical review of the literature, dealing separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. Results Although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in … To quantitatively review and critically evaluate literature examining gender differences in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method A meta-analysis of relevant research based on 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria was performed.

This is not to say that men do not experience traumatic events that trigger high levels of stress and depression as well, but the sociocultural pressures on women tend to be more impactful on their psyches. Gender and Responses to Stress. Our responses to stress are also inextricably linked to gender. This article is a critical review about the emerging problems in the field of alcohol research. In particular, the gender peculiarities of alcohol effects are highlighted. Up until now, there have not been many gender studies, but results are consistent with the hypothesis that the severity of alcohol-related damage is greater in females than that in males.

Peer Commentary. It's Not Easy Being Male Either Josiah P. Allen Rochester Institute of Technology In "Why Women Are More Susceptible to Depression: An Explanation for Gender Differences," by Christina M. MulГ©, points were made that gloss over the issue of depression in men. This is not to say that men do not experience traumatic events that trigger high levels of stress and depression as well, but the sociocultural pressures on women tend to be more impactful on their psyches. Gender and Responses to Stress. Our responses to stress are also inextricably linked to gender.

This is not to say that men do not experience traumatic events that trigger high levels of stress and depression as well, but the sociocultural pressures on women tend to be more impactful on their psyches. Gender and Responses to Stress. Our responses to stress are also inextricably linked to gender. Peer Commentary. It's Not Easy Being Male Either Josiah P. Allen Rochester Institute of Technology In "Why Women Are More Susceptible to Depression: An Explanation for Gender Differences," by Christina M. MulГ©, points were made that gloss over the issue of depression in men.

Cross-national analyses indicated that larger gender differences were found in nations with greater gender equity, for major depression, but not depression symptoms. The gender difference in depression represents a health disparity, especially in adolescence, yet the magnitude of the difference indicates that depression in men should not be Our findings highlight the potential pitfalls of lengthy social media use for young people's mental health. Findings are highly relevant for the development of guidelines for the safe use of social media and calls on industry to more tightly regulate hours of social media use.

This paper presents a review of the literature on gender differences in depression in general and male depression in particular. Literature and research on the definition and nature of depression are presented first. Gender differences in depression are discussed under two … Review Article Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (5) : 385 ABSTRACT Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors’ reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specifi c. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender

Depression is the psychiatric syndrome that receives the most attention in individuals with cancer. We review 49 studies of prevalence of depression in individuals with cancer and describe the data available... The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and

T1 - Gender differences in ADHD. T2 - A meta-analysis and critical review. AU - Gaub, Miranda. AU - Carlson, Caryn L. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Objective: To quantitatively review and critically evaluate literature examining gender differences in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Depression is the psychiatric syndrome that receives the most attention in individuals with cancer. We review 49 studies of prevalence of depression in individuals with cancer and describe the data available...

30.03.2018В В· Therefore, based on the previous literature from the disciplines of medicine, psychology and sociology, the author aimed at looking and reviewing the matter critically. Specifically, the present critical review aims at conceptualising the psychological, social and cultural factors in the context of gender difference in depression. Depression is the psychiatric syndrome that receives the most attention in individuals with cancer. We review 49 studies of prevalence of depression in individuals with cancer and describe the data available...

Cross-national analyses indicated that larger gender differences were found in nations with greater gender equity, for major depression, but not depression symptoms. The gender difference in depression represents a health disparity, especially in adolescence, yet the magnitude of the difference indicates that depression in men should not be However, regardless of gender differences in reporting of mental health issues, the APMS 2014 shows significant proportions of women are experiencing poorer mental health and these elevated rates among young women indicate that if we do not intervene earlier these young women could continue to grow poorer mental health as they age.

15.09.2019В В· Gender-related socialization. Developmental psychology uses learning principles in theories of socialization that account for gender differences in vulnerability to depression. In 1990, Nolen-Hoeksema published her book Sex Differences in Depression, which reviewed studies of depression and gender conducted outside the United States. Nolen-Hoeksema reported on gender differences in depression in individuals from high-income countries (developed countries) and low-income countries (developing countries).

The quality of interpersonal relationships may be a key factor in the etiology of depression. An interpersonal depressive vulnerability has been proposed to interact with interpersonal stressors to... Fronimos, Y and Brown, D (2010) Gender Differences in Depression and Male Depression: A Social Psychological Review Social Psychology Review, 12 (1). pp. 3-16.

Reviewed putative risk factors leading to gender differences in depressive disorders. A critical review of literature was performed that dealt separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. It was found that although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in depressive disorders are Depression is the psychiatric syndrome that receives the most attention in individuals with cancer. We review 49 studies of prevalence of depression in individuals with cancer and describe the data available...

Women are at least twice as likely as men to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders, including unipolar depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias (Regier et al., 1993, Kessler et al., 1994).These sex differences are seen in multiple diverse countries and cultures, suggesting a biological basis. In 1990, Nolen-Hoeksema published her book Sex Differences in Depression, which reviewed studies of depression and gender conducted outside the United States. Nolen-Hoeksema reported on gender differences in depression in individuals from high-income countries (developed countries) and low-income countries (developing countries).

Women’s Mental Health

gender differences in depression critical review

Gender differences in depression appear at age 12. Review Article Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (5) : 385 ABSTRACT Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors’ reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specifi c. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender, A study published in JAMA Psychiatry by researchers Martin, Neighbors, and Griffith found gender differences in depression symptoms but also found similarities..

Gender Differences in Depression Biological Affective. Depression is the psychiatric syndrome that receives the most attention in individuals with cancer. We review 49 studies of prevalence of depression in individuals with cancer and describe the data available..., Fronimos, Y and Brown, D (2010) Gender Differences in Depression and Male Depression: A Social Psychological Review Social Psychology Review, 12 (1). pp. 3-16..

Gender differences in ADHD A meta-analysis and critical

gender differences in depression critical review

Women’s Mental Health. However, regardless of gender differences in reporting of mental health issues, the APMS 2014 shows significant proportions of women are experiencing poorer mental health and these elevated rates among young women indicate that if we do not intervene earlier these young women could continue to grow poorer mental health as they age. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender_studies ulnerability-stress approach, we consider the evidence for biological vulnerabilities (genes, pubertal hormones, and pubertal timing), affective vulnerabilities (temperament), and cognitive vulnerabilities (negative cognitive style, objectified body consciousness, and rumination). The impact of stress is central to the vulnerability-stress model, and we review evidence on gender differences in.

gender differences in depression critical review

  • Gender Differences in Depression and it Dr Shock MD PhD
  • Gender and Sex Differences in Prevalence of Major
  • Gender differences in depression the role of personality

  • Continuing research is needed to determine how gender influences the risk, clinical presentation, and response to treatment of depression. Exploration of sex differences in animals and humans should aid in efforts to treat depression as an organic disorder rather than a psychological maladaptation. M. Piccinelli and G. Wilkinson, “Gender differences in depression. Critical review,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, pp. 486–492, 2000.

    Reviewed putative risk factors leading to gender differences in depressive disorders. A critical review of literature was performed that dealt separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. It was found that although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in depressive disorders are Women are at least twice as likely as men to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders, including unipolar depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias (Regier et al., 1993, Kessler et al., 1994).These sex differences are seen in multiple diverse countries and cultures, suggesting a biological basis.

    M. Piccinelli and G. Wilkinson, “Gender differences in depression. Critical review,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, pp. 486–492, 2000. 15.09.2019 · Gender-related socialization. Developmental psychology uses learning principles in theories of socialization that account for gender differences in vulnerability to depression.

    mental health status. Similarly, when considering the differences between women and men, a gender approach has been used. While this does not exclude biological or sex differences, it considers the critical roles that social and cultural factors and unequal power relations between men and women play in promoting or impeding mental health. However, regardless of gender differences in reporting of mental health issues, the APMS 2014 shows significant proportions of women are experiencing poorer mental health and these elevated rates among young women indicate that if we do not intervene earlier these young women could continue to grow poorer mental health as they age.

    Reviewed putative risk factors leading to gender differences in depressive disorders. A critical review of literature was performed that dealt separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. It was found that although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in depressive disorders are Reviewed putative risk factors leading to gender differences in depressive disorders. A critical review of literature was performed that dealt separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders. It was found that although artefactual determinants may enhance a female preponderance to some extent, gender differences in depressive disorders are

    28.04.2017 · Salk, R. et al. Psychological Bulletin Published online: 27 April 2017 In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b)… 24.03.2011 · Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health.

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and M. Piccinelli and G. Wilkinson, “Gender differences in depression. Critical review,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, pp. 486–492, 2000.

    Piccinelli, M., & Wilkinson, G. (2000). Gender differences in depression. Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 486-492. Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. OPEN ACCESS. Gender differences in mental health service utilization among respondents reporting depression … M. Piccinelli and G. Wilkinson, “Gender differences in depression. Critical review,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 177, pp. 486–492, 2000.

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and PDF On Dec 4, 2016, Dastan Faeq and others published Depression among students: Critical review (1999), in their study on gender differences of depression, reported that .

    ulnerability-stress approach, we consider the evidence for biological vulnerabilities (genes, pubertal hormones, and pubertal timing), affective vulnerabilities (temperament), and cognitive vulnerabilities (negative cognitive style, objectified body consciousness, and rumination). The impact of stress is central to the vulnerability-stress model, and we review evidence on gender differences in 28.04.2017 · Salk, R. et al. Psychological Bulletin Published online: 27 April 2017 In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b)…

    The prevalence of comorbid depression was high, even among men. Given the poorer prognosis associated with comorbid major depression in CAD, the findings emphasize the need to devote more attention to identify and address potential factors that could account for gender differences in depression. Review Article Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (5) : 385 ABSTRACT Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors’ reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specifi c. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender

    Gender differences in depression appear to be at their greatest during reproductive years (Bebbington, 1996). Recently, my colleagues and I set out to explore some of the possible explanations for gender differences in depression (Nazroo et al., 1997, 1998). Piccinelli, M. and Wilkinson, G. (2000) Gender differences in depression Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 486-492.

    have not specifically examined gender differences in personality traits as a possible mechanism that might help to explain the gender difference in depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, in press ). If there are, in fact, gender differences in personality fac-tors in the general population, especially in neu-roticism, these differences may contribute to, or ence depression. Many differ-ent explanations for this gender difference in depression have been offered, but none seems to fully explain it. Recent research has focused on gender differ-ences in stress responses, and in exposure to certain stressors. I review this research and de-scribe how gender differences in stress experiences and stress

    Women are at least twice as likely as men to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders, including unipolar depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias (Regier et al., 1993, Kessler et al., 1994).These sex differences are seen in multiple diverse countries and cultures, suggesting a biological basis. In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b) use a developmental perspective to elucidate patterns of gender differences across the life span; and (c